ArcGIS Pro is the newer desktop app where future development is focused
An ArcGIS Desktop license includes the following five desktop GIS applications:
Used to organize and manage various types of geographic information as logical collections—for example, the data, maps, and results of your current GIS project that you work with in ArcGIS.
ArcMap is the primary application used in ArcGIS to perform a wide range of common GIS tasks as well as specialized, user-specific tasks. It is also where you display and explore GIS datasets for your study area, where you assign symbols, and where you create map layouts for printing or publication. ArcMap is also the application you use to create and edit datasets.
ArcScene is a 3D visualization application that allows you to view your GIS data in three dimensions. Features are placed in 3D by providing height information from feature geometry, feature attributes, layer properties, or a defined 3D surface, and every layer in the 3D view can be handled differently.
ArcGlobe is a 3D visualization application that allows you to view large amounts of GIS data on a globe surface. You can view data covering a global extent and seamlessly zoom in to highly detailed, localized data.
ArcGIS Pro is newest addition to the ArcGIS Desktop product. Read More>>
ArcGIS Desktop licenses
There are three types of ArcGIS Desktop licenses:
Named User (available for ArcGIS Pro only)
ArcGIS Desktop license levels
An ArcGIS Desktop license comes in three different levels of functionality:
Depending on the type and level of license you have, ArcGIS Desktop allows you to perform number of GIS tasks.
ArcToolbox is a collection of geoprocessing tools for analyzing, editing, and converting data. The tools can be used directly from a dialog, executed via command line, combined with other processes in visual models using Model Builder, or used in advanced scripts.